The parable of the “delivery of the Ukrainian nation” within the Commonwealth

The scene of the Pereyaslav Rada on a postage stamp devoted to the three hundredth…

The scene of the Pereyaslav Rada on a postage stamp devoted to the three hundredth anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. It’s value remembering that there have been no “Ukrainians” and “Ukraine” then. There have been Russians who lived within the western a part of Russia-Russia, Little Russia

As we speak in Russia there’s a well-liked fantasy that the Ukrainian ethnos was born within the Commonwealth. In the course of the Polish occupation, the Russians within the southwestern a part of Russia had been Polonized, and so the “Ukrainians” appeared.

In Ukraine itself, this fantasy, which turned dominant in Soviet historiography (earlier, Russians in Nice and Little Russia weren’t divided into totally different peoples), have already been discarded. There now dominates the parable that the true Slavs and direct heirs of Kievan Rus (“Rus-Ukraine”) are “Ukrainians”. On the identical time, many Ukrainian authors have agreed that the “historical Ukrainians” are supposedly probably the most historical folks on the planet, respectively, the “Ukrainian language” is supposedly the guardian language of all Indo-European peoples (The adventures of the “historical proto-Ukrainians”) [1].

Simply sufficient to take historic sources [2] of the Center Ages to see that ethnically, culturally and linguistically, the Russian land (Rus) was Russian. Sources have no idea any “Ukrainians”. The identical state of affairs endured within the XIV-XVI centuries, when Polotsk, Kyiv, GaliciaVolyn, Seversk, Smolensk and different lands fell underneath the rule of the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords. In Lithuanian Rus, Russian folks nonetheless lived with their inherent religion, nationwide mentality, language and tradition. The existence of “Ukrainians” within the Commonwealth is a fantasy.

Till the very finish of Galicia-Volyn Russia, its rulers had been referred to as “sovereigns of Russia”, “kings of Russia”, cash “Russian coin”, “Russian pennies” was minted. Till the start of the XNUMXth century, the Galicians thought of themselves “Russian-Rusyns”. Solely large-scale Ukrainization, Polonization of Western Russia, after which probably the most extreme terror, repressions that led to the bodily destruction of tens of 1000’s of Russians and the flight of a whole bunch of 1000’s of people that recognized themselves with Russia (“Historical past of the destruction of Russian Galicia”) [3], allowed to vary the nationwide composition of Galicia. The remaining Russians had been “Ukrainized”, they needed to settle for the “Ukrainian chimera”.

However even in 100 years it’s inconceivable to create an ethnos-people, this requires rather more time. For instance, even now there isn’t any American ethnic group, there’s a set of utterly totally different racial, national-linguistic, spiritual and cultural teams that may collapse at any second. Sufficient to destroy the “American dream” and the dominance of the greenback.

After the seize of a part of the lands of the Kiev area by Lithuania, its princes took the title: “Grand Duke of Lithuania, Zhmud and Russian.” Lithuania consisted of two-thirds of the Russian lands and the Russian inhabitants. The Russian language was the state language, legal guidelines had been revealed in it, authorized proceedings had been carried out, Russians prevailed within the squads and regiments of Lithuania. The statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (a group of basic legal guidelines) was adopted 3 times: in 1529, 1566 and 1588 in Russian. Even within the third version of the Statute, it was prescribed:

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“The zemstvo clerk is obliged to jot down all papers, extracts and draft summonses … solely in Russian and in Russian, in Russian letters and phrases.”

Governors and elders had been alleged to have amongst their assistants individuals who knew Russian letters.

Underneath the final Galician-Volyn princes, the time period “Little Russia” appeared. So in Byzantium they started to name Volyn, Galicia, Vladimir-Volyn, Kholm, Przemysl, Lutsk and Turov lands. Over time, the title “Little Russia” (Little Russia) extends to all Russian lands that fell underneath the rule of Lithuania and Poland. The Polish king Casimir III the Nice, having captured Galician Rus, styled himself “King of Lyakhia and Little Russia.”

Nothing has modified within the XV-XVI centuries. Russians nonetheless lived in Little Russia. No person is aware of concerning the “Ukrainians” in it. Within the e book of the Polish Jesuit Piotr Skarga “On the unity of the Church of God” (1577), the place a plan was developed to unfold the union among the many Russians, we learn:

“Conferences… with the Russian bishops would assist us loads… If we ourselves had been attentive, we’d have taken over Russian faculties way back, we’d have reviewed all Russian books… in order that the Russians themselves can see the reality extra clearly.”

Different paperwork present that in this era there was an growth of Catholicism, Jesuitism and Polonization. No “Ukrainians” and “Ukrainization”. The West is combating in opposition to Russianness, the Russian church, the Russian language. Within the message of the Galician-Podolsk laity dated 1583 to Metropolitan Onesiphorus of Kiev we learn:

“Our church buildings are turning into Jesuit ones, and the goodness of the Russian church is being transferred to the Latin ones.”

Lviv residents write to Moscow Patriarch Job concerning the invasion of Catholicism:

“Earlier than, there have been no Jesuits in our metropolis, who took possession of many Russian church buildings.”

Clearly, the Polish elite was fearful about the truth that an enormous variety of residents had been Russians, and that the Russian state was continuously strengthening and rising close to the borders of the Commonwealth. It was essential to divide Nice and Little Russia, to encourage people who one other tribe lives outdoors Russia-Russia. Weaken the Russian kingdom by pitting the Russians in opposition to one another.

On the finish of the 1587th century, the foundations of the concept that sooner or later can be referred to as “Ukrainianism” had been born in Poland. Within the message of the Polish king Sigismund III (1632-1596) to the Pope of XNUMX concerning the church union, we see:

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“Underneath the authority of the Russian metropolitan (of Kiev and Galicia) are huge and most populous areas. As compared with Russia, the areas of primates of Gaul or Spain are under no circumstances massive … If all of Russia, i.e. Lithuanian Russia, unites with the apostolic throne, this could simply result in the union of the Grand Duchy of Moscow … as a result of Muscovites use the identical language with Russians in worship , and the spoken language of each these peoples presents solely dialectical variations or within the pronunciation of phrases.

Thus, the so-called. “Muscovites-Muscovites” and their legendary homeland “Muscovy”, as “two Russian nationalities” – a Polish invention, supported by the Vatican. In Poland, they started to painting Russians in Little Russia as a totally separate folks, the true heirs of Kievan Rus. And the “Muscovites” because the descendants of the Finno-Ugric tribes and the Tatar-Mongols.

The Russians in Little Russia (future “Ukrainians”) sought to show into the “cannon fodder” of Poland within the everlasting struggle between Poland and Russia-Russia. Little Russians turned a form of Janissaries – ethnic outcasts, who had been skilled to combat the folks to which they belonged by blood. The Turks took away kids and youths from the Balkan Slavic peoples and raised them in hatred for his or her family members. It turned out Ivans, who didn’t bear in mind kinship, however fiercely hated the enemies of the Sultan and Islam. So the “Ukrainians” by origin, language and religion are Russians, they fiercely hate different Russians and Russia.

It is sufficient to take historic sources to ensure: there have been no “Muscovites” on the territory of Russia. This can be a purely Western, synthetic time period. Russians and their neighbors nonetheless name the folks on the lands of Vladimir, Moscow and Novgorod Rus – Russians, and the land – Russian, Rus and Russia. Many sources, together with fashionable genetic and anthropological research, present that in Russia, which the sources name “Nice”, there have been no basic, large-scale adjustments within the inhabitants. The Russians don’t have any “Mongol-Tatar” heritage. They retained their racial, linguistic and nationwide id for a lot of millennia.

In the course of the XIV-XVI centuries. together with the previous title Rus (Russia), new ones seem within the sources to designate two elements of the Russian land. Russian Lithuania, Russian lands underneath the rule of the Polish queens and the Grand Dukes of Lithuania are referred to as Little Russia, Russia. Northern Russian lands are referred to as Nice Russia (Russia). There aren’t any basic ethnic adjustments in Little and Nice Russia. Communities of Poles and Jews seem in Little Russian cities. In Nice Russia, the Horde (largely former Polovtsy), racially representatives of the white race, settle for Orthodoxy and turn out to be Russians nearly within the very first technology.

Russians reside in each Little and Nice Russia. No “Ukrainians” had been famous at the moment. The dismembered Russian folks utterly preserved their religion, linguistic, cultural and psychological unity. Thus, there have been religious and materials conditions for the unification of all Russians right into a single state underneath the rule of their Russian sovereign. Due to this fact, the Russians of Little Russia within the XNUMXth century started a nationwide liberation struggle in opposition to the Polish spiritual, nationwide and financial yoke. They rebelled in opposition to the coverage of de-Russification. Which ultimately ended with the liberation and reunification of the Russian lands.

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The false idea of the alleged “nationwide liberation battle of the Ukrainian folks” was created a lot later. There have been no “Ukrainians” at the moment but. The Russians – Cossacks, peasants and townspeople – fought in opposition to Pan Poland, they had been supported by the Russian Church within the particular person of their finest leaders. The Russians defended their will, the precise to be themselves, to talk Russian, to go to Russian church buildings, not eager to be Polish “claps” slaves.

Bohdan Khmelnitsky despatched out letters that he was going to free the “Russian folks” from “Lyash (Polish) captivity.” The Polish Hetman Sapieha wrote:

“Towards us is just not a gang of self-willed, however the nice energy of the entire of Russia. All Russian folks from villages, villages, cities and cities. Certain by bonds of religion and blood with the Cossacks … “

The very phrase “Ukraine” was then utilized in Russian and Polish sources solely as a designation for “outskirts”. The time period was utilized to all kinds of territories that had nothing to do with fashionable Ukraine. For instance, this was the title of the border lands of the Polotsk land, the border strains of Lithuania and Wallachia, probably the most various “Ukraine” (frontier lands) of the Russian state. The Poles at the moment by “Ukraine” additionally meant the border space, the outskirts. Specifically, the “Ukraine” of Moscow and Tatar – on the border with Russia and the Wild Discipline.

Thus, no “Ukrainians” lived in Western (Little) Russia, Russians lived there, identical to 300800 years in the past. Russian hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky started the Russian liberation struggle, for the liberation of the Russian folks from the Polish yoke. The ideology of “Ukrainianism” was solely begun to be created by the Polish lords, the Jesuits, with the intention to break up off a part of Russia and the Russian folks from Nice Russia-Russia. They deliberate to make use of a part of the Russian folks as “cannon fodder” – Janissaries. It took plenty of time and management over training to penetrate the ideology of “Ukrainianism” into the lots. Russia, having returned Little Russia to its composition, stopped the method of such Polonization-Ukrainization. This Polish pattern was revived among the many Ukrainian intelligentsia solely within the XNUMXth century.