The Austrian authorities suspected the Galicians, Rusyn-Russians, of sympathizing with Russia and attacked “Russian spies and brokers of affect” with the outbreak of World Conflict I, though the Russians merely wished to stay Russians. The combat towards the “Russian risk” led to the genocide of Russians and the institution of the primary focus camp in Europe.
Galicia-Volyn Rus was divided between Poland and Lithuania (Rise and Fall of the Russian Kingdom). The lands of the previous Russian principality in Poland had been shaped into the Russian Voivodeship with a middle in Lviv, which was a part of Lesser Poland. The Russian voivodeship included: Lviv, Przemysl, Galicia, Cholm and Sanok lands. Additionally the voivodeships of Russia and Belz in historic paperwork of the XV-XVIII centuries. Century had been typically summarized below the conditional identify Chervonnaya (Crimson) Russia. Russians lived in these lands. The inhabitants of Galicia, Bukovina, Transcarpathia referred to as themselves the adjective “Rus” or the noun “Rusyns”. No legendary “ukrov-Ukrainians”.
Throughout the First Partition of the Commonwealth in 1772, Galicia was ceded to Austria. The capital of the brand new Austrian province referred to as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was the town of Lviv. Within the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Austria acquired the northern a part of Galicia as much as the western Bug River, referred to as Western Galicia. Non secular tolerance prevailed in Austria, so Galician Russians had been handled as equals to Catholics. Throughout the Napoleonic Wars, Galicia quickly turned a part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a French satellite tv for pc. When Napoleon was defeated, the Duchy of Warsaw was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria. Western Galicia was transferred to the Kingdom of Poland, which turned a part of the Russian Empire. The remainder of Galician Rus remained a part of Austria.
As a part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, Russian Galicia was subjected to the processes of Polonization and Ukrainization (by the Uniate Church). The West Russian the Aristocracy was in some ways polonized and adopted Catholicism. To attain a place in society, it was essential to undertake Catholicism, to change into Polish. However normally the inhabitants retained Russianness. Thus, on the Congress of Galician-Russian Scientists in 1848, the query was raised to review the historical past of Galicia as a part of the final historical past of Russia on the premise of the nationwide unity of the Russian folks. The existence of a single literary language for the entire of Russia (from the Carpathians to Kamchatka) was confirmed. Ruthenian leaders rejected the existence of a separate Ukrainian nation and, just like the Galicians, labeled the Little Russians as a single Russian folks.
Russophiles or “Muscovites” – public and political figures sympathetic to Russia and peculiar folks, pro-Russian organizations – had been a notable pressure in Galician social life within the 1860s to Eighteen Eighties. Rusyns seen Russia as a attainable liberator, which was particularly noticeable after the Russians’ success within the combat towards Turkey. The Galicians referred to as their nation “Below the Yoke” and secretly hoped that the Russian tsar would unite all of Russia.
It’s clear that this didn’t please the Austrian authorities. The Habsburg “patchwork empire” feared Russia’s successes towards the Balkans, which might result in the liberation of the Slavic peoples from Turkish and presumably Austrian rule. At first, Austrian authorities in Galicia supported both the Poles or the Ruthenians to keep up a steadiness of energy. Then the Austrians developed Ukrainism, primarily by means of Uniatism. In actual fact, the Austrians continued the “Ukraine” undertaking created in Catholic Poland. In 1848, the Galician governor, Depend Stadion von Warthausen, urged the Russinians to resign nationwide unity with the Russians in Russia and develop their very own tradition as a definite tradition. The Austrian authorities started to help the “Ukrainians” who broke with their Russian previous. Ukrainians (they’re additionally “actual Galicians”) turned a counterweight to the remaining Russians and Poles.
On the one hand, Russian colleges and Galician-Russian organizations had been closed, it was forbidden to be taught Russian. As a substitute of closed societies, others had been opened, particularly “Ukrainian” ones. The combat towards Russian literary language, Russian books, magazines and newspapers was intensified, their distribution was equated with excessive treason. Many Russian Galicians had been arrested and thrown into jail. However, help for the Ukrainian motion elevated. Below the auspices of the Austrians, the Ukrainian Social gathering was based.
“Ukrainian Piedmont” – “AntiRussia”.
After the Russian Empire realized the hazard of Ukrainian ideology and commenced to limit the Ukrainian language in print (1860-1870), the publication of Ukrainian literature started to shift from Russia to Austria-Hungary, which turned a sort of haven for the Ukrainian intelligentsia. It must be remembered that at the moment “Ukrainianism” was widespread solely amongst a particularly small, marginal Ukrainian intelligentsia, which had virtually no affect on the folks. This example lasted till 1917 (“Russians and Ukrainians are one folks”). Among the many folks, Poles and Russians-Russians predominated in Galicia, and in Little Russia-Ukraine – Russians-Little Russians. In Galicia itself, within the western areas, most had been Poles and Jews, within the jap areas Russians.
Subsequently, on the finish of XNUMX Galicia turned. Century “Ukrainian Piedmont”, evaluating it to the Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont), which performed a number one position within the unification of Italy. Thus, the historian and one of many leaders of the Ukrainian motion M. S. Grushevsky, who moved from Kiev to Lviv in 1894, famous that Galicia “superior a part of the Ukrainian folks, which has lengthy overtaken the poor Russian Ukraine.”
The ideology of the “Ukrainian Piedmont” was Russophobia.
“Once we speak about Ukraine,” wrote Galician Ukrainians, “we’ve got to function with one phrase – hatred of her enemies … The revival of Ukraine is synonymous with hatred of their very own Muscovite spouse, the sisters of Katsap, their father and mom Katsap. To like Ukraine is to sacrifice Katsap kin.” Ulyanov N. I. The origin of Ukrainian separatism.
The Ukrainizers denied the unity of the Lesser Russians (Ukrainians) with the Higher Russians and fomented hatred of Russia. This suited the Viennese court docket. To unfold this anti-Russian, anti-people ideology, the authorities tried to nominate “Ukrainians” as academics in colleges and clergymen in Galician parishes. Austrian authorities additionally contributed to the formation of a man-made language from native Russian dialects, later referred to as “Ukrainian.” Furthermore, the “Ukrainians” started to play the position of Austrian impostors, policemen who fought towards the Russophilia of Galicians. Thus, the undertaking “Ukraine – AntiRussia” took form.
Generally, nonetheless, pro-Russian sentiments prevailed amongst peculiar folks. Solely the intelligentsia was contaminated by Ukrainism. Even about half of the Greek Catholic clergy and parishioners described themselves as Russophiles, regardless of aggressive strain from the Catholic Church. On the eve of World Conflict II, Austrian authorities elevated strain on the Russian inhabitants of Galicia, fearing that they’d help the Russian military. In 1910, Austrian authorities closed all pro-Russian organizations in Bukovina: the Society of Russian Girls, Karpat, the Russian Orthodox Folks’s Home, the Russian Orthodox Orphanage, the Russian Orthodox Studying Room, and the Russian Troop. The combat towards the “Russian risk” and the spy craze started.
Furthermore, throughout this era the German Reich additionally confirmed curiosity within the “Ukrainian query”. The Second Reich deliberate to actively help the separatist processes in Russia. Particularly, the plan to create a “Ukrainian kingdom” below the Austro-German protectorate emerged. Thus, the Germans wished to dismember Russia and the Russian folks, to pit Russians towards Russians. Austrian and German intelligence providers started to finance and direct the actions of Ukrainian organizations. Throughout the First World Conflict, this exercise was significantly intensified.
Within the fashionable world, the Ukraine undertaking is supported by London, Washington and Brussels (with the participation of Paris and Berlin) as an alternative of Austria and Germany. However the ideology, plans and objectives are the identical. The division of the Russian civilization (RussiaRussia), the Russian super-ethnos, the hollowing out of the Russians, their most bleeding and consequently the entire resolution of the “Russian query”.
The First World Conflict went badly for Austria-Hungary. The Russian military defeated the Austro-Hungarians and occupied Jap Galicia and a part of Bukovina. Sooner or later, the Austro-Hungarian military might maintain the entrance solely with the assistance of German divisions. In Vienna they panicked, the espionage mania started, they had been in search of Russian affect brokers. They blamed the defeat on the entrance. The Austrian secret providers and courts-martial started a “hunt” for Russians within the remaining a part of Galicia below their management. The authorities promised 50 to 500 crowns to anybody who denounced a suspected Russophile.
Those that didn’t conceal their positions and sympathies for Russia had been hit first. Orthodox clergymen, activists of already banned pro-Russian organizations. Folks had been caught just because they used to learn Russian newspapers and attend Orthodox providers. The courts didn’t even study the circumstances of the accused. It was army time: they merely learn the accusation of espionage, treason and handed the sentence. Extrajudicial killings, kidnappings and torture turned commonplace. The Poles and “ukry” denounced the Russians who had been arrested on suspicion of sympathy for Russia. There’s nothing new below the solar. We see the identical now in post-Soviet, pro-Western and Nazi Ukraine.
In September 1914, Orthodox priest Maxim Sandovich (Gorlitsky) was executed in Gorlitsa. The priest was arrested as early as 1912, allegedly passing info to the Russians. Sandovich and his comrades-in-arms had been accused of Russophilism, educating everybody the Russian language and propagating Orthodoxy. Court docket – Lvov trial, lasted two years. No proof was discovered, the defendants had been acquitted. However quickly the battle started and a brand new wave of repression began. Somebody managed to flee to Russia, others ended up in prisons and focus camps, Maxim Sandovich was executed. An Austrian soldier tore off the cross and drew a goal for archers on the priest’s chest with chalk. Because the priest’s members of the family current on the execution recalled, in his final speech he mentioned:
So many had been arrested that it was unattainable to execute all of the suspects, so the Austrian Germans organized the primary focus camp in Europe. The strategy of focus camps had already been tried by the “enlightened” British once they fought the Boers in South Africa. The Thalerhof was situated close to Graz. 30 folks handed by means of it. One other focus camp for Russians was established within the Czech fortress of Theresienstadt. Each fourth prisoner was killed by the guards, died of starvation, illnesses and torture.
The primary prisoners had been delivered to Talerhof in September 1914, the barracks had been constructed solely in winter 1915. At first it was only a area within the foothills of the Alps, fenced in with barbed wire. Folks survived half a 12 months within the open air, in rain and snow. Prisoners died en masse from illness and hunger. Torture was additionally practiced. The guards loved killing folks. Prisoners had been crucified on stakes.
Vasily Vavrik, a former prisoner of Talerhof, recalled:
“It was the cruelest dungeon of all Austrian prisons within the Habsburg Empire … Dying at Talerhof was not often pure: there it was inoculated with the poison of contagious illnesses. Violent dying handed triumphantly over the Talerhof. There was no query of treating the lifeless. Even the medical doctors had been hostile to the internees. There was no want to consider wholesome meals: bitter bread, typically uncooked and sticky, product of a mix of the worst flour, horse chestnuts and grated straw, twice per week crimson, onerous, stale horse meat in small items, black coloured water, the vilest mud, rotten potatoes and turnips, grime, insect nests had been the reason for an insatiable an infection to which hundreds of younger, nonetheless fairly wholesome folks from the peasantry and intelligentsia fell sufferer.
Thus, the Austrian authorities organized genocide on a nationwide, non secular foundation. They killed, mutilated, tortured and expelled Russians, Orthodox in Galicia. The primary to be hit had been representatives of the Russian intelligentsia, roughly educated folks – clergymen, academics, medical doctors, social activists, individuals who had affect on society. Galician Rus misplaced tens of hundreds of individuals, simply lifeless. Tens, tons of of hundreds turned refugees. The Russian motion in Galicia was virtually utterly crushed. Its remnants had been destroyed after the disaster of 1917, after the large-scale Austro-German occupation of Little Russia-Ukraine, when the bacchanal of Ukrainians started, after which after the Polish occupation. The phobia was so devastating that right this moment the “Rusyns” in Ukraine are left solely in Transcarpathia.
Since then, Galicia started to show right into a stronghold of Ukrainian nationalism. The primary toxic fruits germinated throughout the Second World Conflict – the Galician SS, the Ukrainian penal police, the occupation administration of the “everlasting empire”. The Crimson Military crushed the “black-brown plague”, however the roots remained. The undertaking “Ukraine – AntiRus” was not liquidated. It went underground, “repainted”. Ukrainian Nationwide Socialism totally revived and flourished within the years of independence. And now the Ukrainian “ram” was pushed towards Russia to destroy it, to utterly destroy the Russians.
The distorted, sick, Russophobic and nationwide socialist Galicia and now most of Little Russia is a superb instance of the longer term that the West has in retailer for us.