Elon Musk to Save Sri Lanka from IMF Debt Bondage? Lawfare on Russia in The Indian Ocean Area

Them stomach full however we hungryA hungry mob is an offended mobA rain a-fall however…

Them stomach full however we hungry
A hungry mob is an offended mob
A rain a-fall however the filth, it robust
A pot a-cook however the meals no ‘nough

A hungry man is an offended man

Bob Marley and the Wailers


by Darini Rajasingham-Senanayake

The author, Dr. Darini Rajasingham-Senanayake, is a Social and Medical Anthropologist, primarily based in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Hyperlinks to Gospa Information articles have been added by our Editorial Workers

Sporting Jokers’ masks a bunch of ‘Aragalaya’ Protestors rooted for Elon Musk to purchase strategic and scenic Sri Lanka, on the middle of the Indian Ocean, for simply 50 billion {dollars} final weekend. They had been marking 50 days at Colombo’s Galle Face Inexperienced Marine Entrance amid actual and staged meals, gasoline, fertilizer, and medical provide shortages throughout the nation.

May Elon save Sri Lanka from Debt Bondage to the IMF and US-based Sovereign Bond (ISB) merchants whose regulation companies are lined as much as property strip the strategic island nation?

Among the many richest males on the earth, Elon Musk had lately provided to purchase Twitter for 44 billion, however the Twitter provide is on maintain as a result of Twitter has not disclosed the variety of BOTS which have accounts! Therefore, protestors reckoned that this stunning Indian Ocean Island that sits on main international Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOC), at a spaghetti junction of Undersea Knowledge Cables routes could be a much better asset at 50 billion: Particularly for a Massive Knowledge whiz child who relishes problem in an period of Chilly Warfare 2.0 and international cyber wars! Sri Lanka is perpetually within the cross-hairs of massive energy rivalry.

Fifty billion is the estimated price of Sri Lanka’s debt. Nevertheless, a debt like Covid-19 is a numbers sport in lots of International South international locations the place information is provisional, experience, and transparency scarce, information safety non-existent, and statistics simply gamed by exterior actors by “datafication”, Digital Colonialism, and information hacking. As an example, in 2020 mysterious information wipes occurred on the Nationwide Medicines Regulatory Authority (NMRA) in the course of the World Well being Group (WHO) promoted Covid-19 pandemic, lockdowns, and militarized mass injection of the inhabitants when enormous sums of cash had been spent on “vaccines” [i].

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Though the Knowledge on which Sri Lanka’s debt calculation relies are contested because the Authorities Cloud and different databases have been hacked prior to now, Debt Bondage to the Washington Consensus (World Financial institution-WB and Worldwide Financial Fund-IMF), and OECD Paris Membership of “Support donors” looms massive because the nation delivered a long-awaited staged default on funds to US-based Worldwide Sovereign Bond (ISB) merchants in April. At the moment the speak is of Famine, shortages, and meals riots to come back.

Famine is a Coverage Alternative

Nobel Prize-winning Economist, Amartya Sen, way back confirmed that Famine is a political and coverage alternative somewhat than the results of a meals manufacturing scarcity. In his e book Poverty and Famines (1981), Sen confirmed that though sufficient meals was harvested during times of famine insufficient distribution and inequality in entry to meals had been the proximate causes of famines in world historical past.

Sens’ historic research of famine in Bengal and different Asian contexts challenged the idea that complete food-availability decline (FAD), was the primary reason behind hunger and famine and confirmed how political and governance components affected entry to meals: Certainly, a slight imbalance in meals manufacturing can result in massive will increase or declines in worth, whereas authorities insurance policies may also trigger entitlement failures.

Amartya Sen additionally argued that the provision of meals can change for quite a few causes apart from manufacturing shortfalls—for instance, adjustments within the costs of products and providers, new rationing guidelines, transport blockages, infestations of farmer’s crops by pests, or the disruption of food-distribution channels by warfare.

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To this record of causes of meals, insecurity could also be added hypothesis by merchants in commodities futures, globally and domestically, the weaponization of meals by sanctions and commerce wars, systematic and coordinated (cyber) disruption of transport and provide chains, and meals safety databases.[ii]  Jomo Sundaram former UN Beneath-Secretary-Basic lately wrote that the US-led sanctions on Russia and the warfare in Ukraine at the moment are the primary drivers of elevated meals insecurity globally.

At the moment of commerce warfare and hyped shortages, international oil firms have by no means made extra earnings! So too Massive Pharmaceutical firms like Pfizer made enormous earnings throughout Covid-19 lockdowns amid hyped injection shortages.

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In brief, famine is a political and coverage alternative in a world the place free markets are legendary. Certainly, the present risk narrative of hunger, meals riots, and famine which can be being liberally promoted to stoke worry and nervousness, rendering “meals riots” in Sri Lanka a roughly self-full-filling prophesy seems to narrate on to what Canadian writer Naomi Klein termed “Catastrophe Capitalism” in her e book titled “The Shock Doctrine”: The time period “catastrophe capitalism” was coined by Klein in 2007 to critique neoliberalism and its coverage paradigm which she outlined by three landmark calls for: privatization, authorities deregulation and deep cuts to social spending.

Klein argued that international capitalism instrumentalizes pure or man-made disasters like Covid-19, navy coups, terrorist incidents, financial crises, wars, earthquakes, tsunamis, and hurricanes, for the sake of advancing its personal agenda of renewal, reconstruction, and revenue. Such disorienting disasters and shocks allow the manufacturing of debilitating cultures of worry, assist to droop public debate, and suppress democratic practices. This enables capitalists to take advantage of the ‘window of alternative opened by traumatic shocks (Klein, 2007).

Famine talks:  A Manchurian Candidate and Cultures of worry

Throughout two weeks of talks between the Central Financial institution of Sri Lanka and the IMF, Might 9-24, the strategic island’s long-suffering residents had been hit by unprecedented and clearly coordinated meals, gasoline, vitality, fertilizer, and medication shortages –purportedly attributable to an absence of exorbitantly privileged and more and more weaponized US {dollars}. This had led the strategic island on the middle of the Indian Ocean nation to default on its debt funds to US-based Sovereign Bond (ISB) merchants for the primary time in its historical past.

Whereas everybody was distracted queuing for meals or gasoline, with protests spiraling into violent confrontations as IMF talks commenced, Washington’s Manchurian Candidate for Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, Ranil Wickramasinghe, was sworn in on Might 12 throughout an island-wide curfew with the navy on the streets.

PM Wickramasinghe made many outstanding statements throughout his first week in workplace: He threatened that ‘worse was to come back’ with possible hunger and famine on the island– earlier than issues received higher!  The ‘subsequent couple of months would be the most tough ones of our lives’ he warned, with an IMF “Firesale” of strategic nationwide property pending to appease the ISB holders?! The nation confronted its worst financial disaster in additional than 70 years and was right down to its final day of petrol on Monday, he claimed.

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The newly appointed Wickramasinghe not solely used contested information and numbers for his debt calculations, he additionally misled residents by claiming that there could be 15-hour electrical energy outages, though the hydro-power reservoirs had ample rain to maintain hydro-power era and electrical energy provide going. He painted a grim image that appeared like a veiled risk.[iii] Would worry would allow rule by fiat and by no means thoughts that he had misplaced his seat within the final Basic Elections and lacks legitimacy?

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A refrain of worse to come back amid guarantees of hunger and meals riots clearly meant to stoke worry, nervousness, and anger reached a crescendo when talks between the Central Financial institution of Sri Lanka and the IMF ended on Might 24.  With the end result of the talks removed from clear, it was as if the IMF’s notorious Shock remedy which embrace austerity measures, sale of State-Owned Enterprises (SOE), debt restructuring, and so on. had been already upon Sri Lanka’s hapless residents, to concurrently distract from and ease the proposed ‘firesale’ of strategic property like Sri Lankan Airways. However wouldn’t such a plan of action inevitably deepen the Nationwide financial and Safety disaster– as has been the case in debt-trapped Greece and Argentina and quite a few different counties.

From Russia, with Love amid US Lawfare?

Remarkably, in the course of the 2 weeks of IMF talks and the worst ever gasoline shortages, there have been ships docked within the Colombo port with Russian gasoline, however there have been no {dollars} to pay to obtain it! This even though the World Financial institution was mentioned to have given 160 million grant to ease the ache of the IMF’s shock remedy that had despatched the Lankan rupee crashing. The much-hyped USD 160 million from the World Financial institution on the outset of IMF talks it emerged couldn’t be used for urgently want albeit Russian oil!

Are Sri Lanka’s gasoline and meals shortages all about vitality geopolitics?! Or, was this a graphic demonstration of Petrodollar hegemony; and by no means thoughts that sanctions-hit Russia and Mr. Putin have dumped the greenback (and Euro), and would somewhat commerce in Rubles or every other forex?  Because the Sri Lankan economic system floor to a halt the worldwide company media spin was that it’s Russia and the Ukraine proxy warfare that was the reason for shortages. Confusion confounded?

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The week after the IMF talks petrol queues lowered and it was introduced that Sri Lanka pays $US 72.6 million to purchase a 90,000-tonne cargo of Russian oil docked at Colombo’s port for weeks, to restart its solely refinery and deal with a crippling vitality disaster. Which means Sri Lanka pays solely $34 per barrel when the market worth is round $110 per barrel!

Russia has been a good friend certainly for Sri Lanka right now. Was it therefore that in on June 2 in a bit remarked however extremely vital improvement and “Lawfare” Situation that the Colombo Industrial Excessive Court docket issued an enjoining order stopping a Russian Aeroflot flight from leaving Sri Lanka?  Colombo Industrial Excessive Court docket Decide Harsha Sethunga issued the injunction on the Russian airline after listening to a grievance filed by Celestial Aviation Buying and selling Restricted in Eire over an insurance coverage dispute!

Former President Sirisena bemoaned the try to destroy Sri Lanka’s historic ties with an outdated good friend and the present pro-US authorities’s dealing with of the matter. The US has been making an attempt to isolate sanctions-hit Russia from the remainder of the world.

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USAID had been busy digitalizing and ‘strengthening’ the court docket’s system and justice sector, in Sri Lanka, significantly the Industrial Court docket for some years. Was Sri Lanka being topic to LAWFARE like Brazilian President Lula Ignacio da Silva was by the CIA not so way back?

At the moment, it has additionally emerged that Sri Lanka can’t use $1.5 billion China swap attributable to IMF issues!  “There’s a situation in relation to the months of import cowl that we have to have so as to have the ability to draw on that cash,” mentioned Dr. Indrajit Coomaraswamy, who’s advising the Sri Lankan authorities, at an occasion organized by the Central Financial institution final week. [iv]

Whereas the IMF calls for ‘transparency’ and that each one collectors be handled ‘equally’ in so-called debt re-structuring, the names of the ISB merchants behind Sri Lanka’s default are a carefully guarded secret! So too, the long-delayed IMF Report on Debt that many involved economists have known as for has not been adequately analyzed and a Technical Report is due.

As we speak the pursuits of Sri Lanka are being represented by overseas regulation companies in so-called IMF negotiations with ISB merchants. If the debt negotiations are so advanced that Sri Lankan regulation companies and accountants can’t signify the pursuits of the residents of the nation, and the debt information is itself contested, the Debt is Odious and its holders are unknown and the negotiations lack transparency, the basic query arises concerning legitimacy, transparency, and accountability of the very technique of so-called IMF negotiations.

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China has at all times resisted becoming a member of the Western ‘Support donors” of the OECD Paris Membership that restructure debt, and would somewhat negotiate immediately, bi-laterally with its Belt and Highway (BRI) improvement associate international locations. In spite of everything, the BRI’s infrastructure drive presents a formidable improvement problem to the OECD nation’s roughly colonial mannequin of debt lure improvement. Is Sri Lanka as soon as once more within the cross hairs of battle between Washington and its allies and their Chilly Warfare on China and Asia Rising?

Would famine be staged in Sri Lanka, more and more a proxy warfare web site for the Chilly Warfare between the US and its Quad companions and China?  Has Sri Lanka already misplaced coverage sovereignty and autonomy to the IMF. Is Dr. Octopus (Doc. Oct), the cyborg of Spiderman fame squeezing and strangling this strategic Indian Ocean island that’s writhing in an ISB Debt lure?

Wither Nationwide Meals and Power Safety?

Whereas the gasoline shortages had been blamed on an absence of the Petro greenback, there gave the impression to be systematic disruption and deliberate hacking of home provide chains and inner commerce networks as non-dollar denominated home meals, gasoline, vitality and medication provide and commerce had been additionally disrupted.

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The gasoline shortages translated into elevated bus fares and prepare fares, and public transport however most of all disabled transport of farm produce to cities and shops from wholesale markets contributing to meals shortages.

So to fishermen had been unable to go to sea attributable to gasoline shortages to function their boats and fish costs hit the roof on this island which imports canned fish regardless of having in depth fisheries sources which can be looted by the Distant Water Fishing States.

A number of causes to elucidate inner meals and gasoline shortages, akin to a non-public gasoline bowser firm tanker drivers being on Strike, different labor disputes, unhealthy climate stopping the unloading of gasoline within the Colombo Port, gasoline trains derailing, the Vesak holidays and transport glitches all appeared to have aligned to fabricate a superbly coordinated storm of meals, gasoline, vitality, medication, fertilizer, cooking fuel, and so on. disaster!

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The tip end result was that farmers had been unable to get their merchandise to wholesale and retail markets, and watched their harvest perish, as had occurred in the course of the earlier 2 years of notorious Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns. Staged meals shortages left outlets in cities with empty cabinets.

But, Prime Minister Wickramasinghe requested Authorities Officers to remain at dwelling somewhat than report back to work to urgently kind out the transport, provide chain, commerce, and agriculture and fisheries sector extension providers disruptions!  Somewhat than prioritize restoring important provide chains that had been stopping meals from reaching wholesale and retail markets and restoring Authorities extension Providers within the Agriculture and Fisheries sectors to revive meals provide, he requested authorities officers to remain dwelling citing transport difficulties.  Thus, as farmer produce rotted within the countryside, outlets in cities had empty cabinets.  Was this a dry run for the famine and meals riots but to be staged?!

Privatization and Catastrophe Capitalism

What was by no means talked about in reference to energy cuts and hovering gasoline and vitality costs was the privatization of sale of the Yugadanavi energy plant to an American New Fortress firm in a corrupt mid-night deal in November 2021 by former US citizen President Rajapakse, earlier than he took wing to New York to deal with the United Nation’s Basic Meeting to boast about his inexperienced vitality and fertilizer insurance policies that had purchased Sri Lanka to the present catastrophe!

It was after the sale of the Yugadanavi energy plant in Kerawelapitiya that the island blessed with two plentiful monsoons and appreciable renewable hydropower era capability had lengthy energy outages with the price of energy era sky–rocketing!

In his second week in workplace, Wickramasinghe additionally introduced that the privatization and sale of Sri Lankan Airways had been on the horizon as a part of the debt and financial restructuring.  Throughout his earlier stint in workplace, Sri Lankan Airways got here near being bought off to Texas Pacific Group (TPG), however the deal fell by as TPG received embroiled in court docket motion by the Australian Authorities for asset stripping in 2017.

Whereas Sri Lanka’s obvious US greenback scarcity had resulted in a number of compounding crises questions come up: is that this strategic Indian Ocean island more and more a cyber, commerce, financial proxy warfare web site for Catastrophe Capitalism, like Ukraine, between the American warfare machine and its larger Chilly warfare adversary within the so-called free and open Indo-Pacific?

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A listing had already been ready and launched of strategic airports, ports, telecom transport, and vitality infrastructure to be privatized and property stripped. A hearth-sale of lands, transport, vitality, and telecom infrastructure, additional compromising nationwide safety and coverage sovereignty and autonomy was on the horizon as a part of IMF reforms and austerity measures and re-structuring of debt-trapped State-Owned Enterprises. Was the implication of the threats of Famine and meals riots, “worse to come back” to facilitate and pace up the firesale?

It later emerged that PM Wickramasinghe wouldn’t settle for grant help from China which might have eased the disaster till a deal was labored out with the IMF, like his predecessors Mahinda and Basil Rajapakse who had additionally turned down presents of help from Saudi Arabia and Indonesia in an effort to stage the Default into IMF and the Paris Membership’s arms. By no means thoughts the plight of individuals languishing in meals and gasoline queues, unable to make a day’s residing and impoverished!

Was there a deliberate try to deepen the disaster and distract the general public with guarantees of “wore to observe” if the Worldwide Sovereign Bond merchants that the IMF represents don’t get their pound of flesh?

2 years of Covid-19 Lockdowns, Masks, and Institutional decay

Former Minister of Agriculture Dr. Hemakumara Nanayakkara has predicted ‘meals riots’ and Famine attributable to seed and different plant materials shortages right now when candy corn and maize appear to have changed rice farming? Seed and planting materials that the Dept of Agriculture used to supply at the moment are scarce and have to be imported by personal sector firms he famous. Clearly, lack of chemical fertilizer isn’t the one purpose for poor harvest this yr. Low manufacturing throughout the nation can be attributable to using imported hybrid seeds which can be extremely depending on agro chemical substances.

The Departments of Fisheries and Agriculture extension providers had been systematically disrupted over two years of Covid-19 lockdowns, privatization over two years of Covid-19 lockdowns, and marketization of all Agriculture Division and authorities capabilities.

Not like in India the place farmers fought new Farm Legal guidelines and multinational agribusiness company takeover of the agriculture sector, which had been smuggled in throughout 2 years of Covid-19 lockdown, in Sri Lanka the corporatization of agriculture has been accompanied by the disruption of presidency establishments and the Agricultural extension providers much like the Well being sector.

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Agricultural and Fisheries Division extension providers had been guttered as datafication, digital colonialism, and Catastrophe capitalism accelerated with a stay-at-home work tradition for Authorities servants cultivated in a International South nation, heedless of the Digital divide following World Well being Group (WHO) hype.

On the root of the present dysfunctional authorities establishments and pandemic of corruption within the Agriculture and Fisheries sectors and extension providers which impinge on meals safety right now are two years of pointless and economically, socially, and institutionally devastating Covid-19 lockdowns and the stay-at-home work tradition they instituted.

It was capitalizing on this Covid-19 lockdown and masked tradition precedent that PM, Wickramasinghe suggested authorities workers to remain at dwelling somewhat than report urgently to work and type out the meals and gasoline provide chain and extension service disruptions. Somewhat than prioritize and restore transport, commerce, and meals provide chains from farmlands to the cities to get the nation and economic system again up and working authorities workers got holidays– was this deliberate sabotage of a limping economic system?!

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The lockdown and stay-at-home work tradition together with digitalization and datafication had been promoted by the World Well being Group (WHO), with Well being Sector Unions and organizations just like the GMOA, SLMA, and P.C.R Kumudesh of the Union of Well being Technical Employees. Many of those organizations funded by large Pharmaceutical firms, vociferously demanded economic system, society, and democratic establishments debilitating lockdowns, which weren’t primarily based on any Nation-Particular scientific information evaluation of the Sri Lanka context.

At the moment, amidst Aragla Protests and the puppet present of horse-trading within the Parliament whereas the native media is distracted with Constitutional reforms and the Twenty first Modification, regardless of narratives of “medication shortages” a 4th Pfizer Jab is being offered freed from cost in a rustic the place Covid-19 has disappeared.  As a result of there are not any PCR exams?!

In the meantime, the World Well being Group (WHO) which promoted economically devastating lockdowns, Covid-19 worry, and militarized mass injection of the inhabitants prior to now 2 years at the moment are establishing a Joint Financial institution Account with the Ministry of Well being to determine medicines and procure well being provides for Sri Lanka amidst a pandemic of corruption within the Well being Sector.

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Can we not stay in a world that rewards excessive crimes? Wither Nationwide Well being and Financial coverage sovereignty and autonomy on this period of datafication, Digital Colonialism, Knowledge wipes on the NMRA database on the GoSL Cloud, and the brand new Imperialism?

The WHO can be advertising and marketing a harmful International Pandemic Treaty right now to abolish bodily autonomy and nationwide coverage sovereignty as a part of the New Imperialism, though the Governments of India and Pakistan have challenged the info within the WHO’s report on Covid-19 extra deaths!

Within the last evaluation, it’s clear that two years of World Well being Group (WHO) beneficial militarized Covid-19 lockdowns which enabled a pandemic of corruption to border the present institutional disaster in Sri Lanka, and the spiral into debt and catastrophe capitalism that thrives on digital colonialism, in addition to, on non-digitalized commerce and provide chain and commerce disruption in contexts of excessive corruption. In spite of everything it’s not a secret that the previous two years of Covid-19 lockdowns noticed the best switch of wealth in human historical past.

Covid 19 lockdowns, worry, and work-at-home tradition debilitated authorities and civil establishments, coverage processes and oversight techniques, in addition to, coverage autonomy and institutional independence in a International South nation context the place certified and expert officers to function and analyze the info techniques are scarce and the digital divide is a actuality that no quantity of datafication hype can overcome, additional eroding nationwide meals safety coverage autonomy and sovereignty resulting in the present disaster.  The end result has been the decay of presidency extension providers, companies, and oversight establishments, the tradition of basic apathy, and “do business from home” additional decaying and hollowing out State establishments and supporting training, analysis, and technical companies.

From Staged default to ‘meals riots’? Geopolitics to the fore

Within the last evaluation, there are not any purely financial or IMF-crafted options to Geo-political issues. As individuals stood in meals and gasoline queues exterior authorities cooperative outlets for hours or days, disoriented, distracted, fearful, in survival mode unable to see the massive image, Wickramasinghe’s narrative to crush them was ‘worse would observe’. This was repeated like a mantra by the Central Financial institution Governor, varied Ministers for economics previous and current, akin to Harsha de Silva and Eran Wickramaratne, and consultants concerned in IMF negotiations– heedless of the ache and struggling of the individuals. In flip, the native media magnified the disaster-to-come narrative.

Bob Marley sang “a hungry man is an offended man”. The chorus that issues would worsen with famine and meals riots to come back earlier than they improved made it abundantly clear that if Washington’s Situations, austerity measures, and proposed firesale weren’t duly carried out issues would get a lot, a lot worse – a part of the politics of worry and the rule by fiat?

Wickramasinghe like Rajapakse had additionally delayed accepting grant help from China and unloading gasoline shipments from Russia till after an IMF deal was struck and by no means thoughts the struggling of individuals. Was he extra to please his Washington backers?

Sri Lanka definitely appears to be on its method to changing into a distinct type of proxy warfare web site than Ukraine, between the NATO/QUAD warfare machine and its larger Chilly warfare adversary, China, within the Indian Ocean Area which the US calls Indo-Pacific. In spite of everything,  Secretary of State, Antony Blinken lately mentioned that China (somewhat than Russia), is the larger risk and strategic rival to the imploding American empire.

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At the moment questions come up as as to if a famine would quickly be staged just like the staged default to distract residents and ship strategic lands, transport, vitality, and telecom infrastructure and frequencies to Sri Lanka’s ISB debt holders that together with BlackRock and J.P Morgan Chase which acquired large US Authorities Covid-19 bailout funds, through an IMF firesale of strategic property whereas persons are distracted with the deliberate and hyped ‘meals riots’?  And who does Ranil Wickramasinghe signify? The pursuits of the individuals of Sri Lanka or his Washington backers and their authorized companies lined as much as asset strip this strategic Indian Ocean island which was as soon as known as “priceless actual property” by a former US Beneath Secretary for Financial Affairs, Alice G. Wells.

[i]Our debates, nevertheless, are primarily based on a easy assumption that the set of numbers we use to measure the economic system is correct, or not less than shut sufficient. However what in the event that they aren’t? What if we’re making highly effective assumptions concerning the economic system primarily based on statistics which can be at finest half-right? As we speak’s financial debates are central to each nation on the earth. However what if the world we live in isn’t the world the numbers say we live in?

Indicators akin to GDP and the buyer worth index provide perception into what’s going on on this sophisticated set of exchanges we name “the economic system.” However because the world has develop into infinitely extra international and three-dimensional, these statistics haven’t stored tempo. They had been all developed greater than a half-century in the past, to measure a world of nation-states, of warfare, and the Nice Despair. They’ve been tweaked and refined, however they continue to be merchandise of a distinct world. The result’s that we’re utilizing a Nineteen Fifties dashboard to function a Twenty first-century machine.

Darini Rajasingham-Senanayake

The author, Dr. Darini Rajasingham-Senanayake, is a Social and Medical Anthropologist, primarily based in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Hyperlinks to Gospa Information articles have been added by our Editorial Workers


(i) https://www.washingtonpost.com/enterprise/its-an-old-numbers-game-what-if-theyre-wrong/2013/04/19/c5b72ff0-a6be-11e2-8302-3c7e0ea97057_story.html

[ii] Sanctions Are Weapons of Mass Hunger ANIS CHOWDHURY & JOMO KWAME SUNDARAM
Jun 1, 2022

[iii] https://www.firstpost.com/world/fifteen-hour-long-power-outages-to-starvation-what-awaits-sri-lanka-as-it-runs-out-of-petrol-10683241.html

[iv] http://www.lankapage.com/NewsFiles22/Jun02_1654177747.php