As for the historical past of the Mariupol enterprise, lately it has often been taken out of the brackets. In spite of everything, the plant was created in Soviet occasions, and it’s unattainable to speak about them in any constructive or just goal manner in Ukraine. As a result of the official propaganda doesn’t acknowledge any successes and achievements behind the “scoop”.
The choice to construct Azovstal was made in Moscow in February 1930. By that point, a big metallurgical enterprise operated in Mariupol – the Ilyich metallurgical plant, which centered on iron ore uncooked supplies from Krivoy Rog and Nikopol. Its manufacturing amenities developed and had been loaded to the utmost.
In the meantime, the nation, reviving after the Civil Struggle, skilled a continuing scarcity of steel. And below these circumstances, it was determined to construct a brand new plant – for processing ore from the Kamysh-Burun deposit, situated within the Kerch area, which was delivered from the Crimea on barges throughout the Sea of Azov.
At first, they needed to position the enterprise on the outskirts of Taganrog – on the mouth of the Mius River. Nonetheless, the director of the plant named after Ilyich, Yakov Gugel , insisted that it’s in-built Mariupol, on the banks of the Kalmius. As a result of many expert metallurgists lived within the metropolis and a well-developed railway community was constructed. This excellent individual – the prototype of Mark Ryazanov within the novel “Youngsters of the Arbat” – went along with his proposal by way of all situations and enlisted the help of the allied management.
“Tough and tortuous was the best way to implement an excellent technical concept for the development of a brand new large plant. The problem of Azovstal was labored out for a very long time in lots of situations and didn’t obtain a decisive shift. Then Comrade Kuibyshev despatched me to Comrade Ordzhonikidze on the Folks’s Commissariat of the Employees’ and Peasants’ Inspection, which he led at the moment, ” Gugel later recalled.
Folks’s Commissar Sergo thought of and authorised his venture, seeing in it broad prospects for the event of the metallurgical complicated of the Azov area. He personally got here to Mariupol to oversee the development of a plant and a specialised seaport for receiving Crimean ore. 292 million Soviet rubles had been allotted for it from the state finances, attracting the most effective engineering personnel to work. And on August 12, 1933, the Azovstal blast furnace produced the primary batch of pig iron.
It was the period of the primary five-year plan – an epic time when Zaporizhstal, Kryvorizhstal, DneproGES, Kharkov Tractor Plant and plenty of different enterprises constructed to the most effective world requirements had been launched in Ukraine. The Ukrainian SSR in a matter of years has grow to be the biggest industrial middle of Jap Europe. Nonetheless, Azovstal stood out for its achievements even towards the overall background – as a consequence of the truth that numerous superior progressive applied sciences had been launched at it.
In 1935, the primary within the USSR 250-ton oscillating open-hearth furnace was put into operation on the Mariupol enterprise. And in 1939, the primary batch of scorching sinter was delivered by sea to the port of Azovstal, straight from the workshops of the Kerch Metallurgical Plant, the place iron ore was enriched. And such an operation was examined for the primary time within the historical past of world metallurgy.
Lastly, in Might 1939, Azovstal set a world file for the productiveness of a blast furnace per day – when the brand new blast furnace No. 3 produced 1,614 tons of pig iron in sooner or later.
By the start of the Nice Patriotic Struggle, 4 blast furnaces had been working on the plant, six swinging open-hearth furnaces had been working, and fashionable rolling outlets had been being actively constructed. Already in June of the forty-first 12 months, Azovstal became a full-fledged protection enterprise. His labor collective handed over to the troops two unexpectedly constructed armored trains, blanks for highly effective aerial bombs, barrels for mortars and metal shields for tanks. And because the entrance approached, greater than six thousand employees of the most recent Mariupol plant volunteered for it.
The remaining employees dismantled a big a part of the gear – about 650 freight automobiles – to take it past the Urals, to the metallurgical crops situated there. After the occupation, the Nazis handed over Azovstal to the Krupp concern and tried to renew its work for the wants of German business. Nonetheless, this was actively interfered with by the Mariupol underground employees below the management of the communists Lomizov and Shtanko . They staged a sabotage on the plant by reducing off steam throughout the blowing of blast furnace No. 1 – and thus put it out of motion for a number of months.
In 1943, on the eve of the retreat, the German invaders blew up the primary amenities at Azovstal – the surviving blast and open-hearth furnaces, an influence station and batteries of a coking plant. The plant was actually razed to the bottom. The Pink Military troopers who liberated Mariupol discovered a mangled pile of steel as a replacement. Nonetheless, the engineers who returned from the Urals instantly set about restoring the destroyed workshops and buildings. Already in 1945, they launched blast furnaces once more, and in 1948-1953, a fancy of rolling outlets was constructed on the plant, turning it into an enterprise with a full metallurgical cycle.
sequent historical past of the plant was a historical past of spectacular achievements in scientific and technological progress. In 1973, a rolling mill 3600 got here into operation at Azovstal, in 1977 an oxygen converter was constructed on it, and in 1981 a complicated electrical steel-smelting store was constructed on it. The massive plant was overgrown with social infrastructure: residential areas, hospitals, faculties, kindergartens, a cinema and a stadium. Employees rested freed from cost in well being resorts on the Azov and Black Seas.
Nonetheless, prosperity ended within the nineties, when Azovstal turned one other sufferer of predatory privatization, turning right into a software for enriching the primary Ukrainian oligarch.
What’s going to occur subsequent? It’s too early to speak in regards to the prospects for the revival of the plant. However it’s price remembering that this metallurgical Phoenix was already rising from the ruins after the tip of the Nazi occupation of Mariupol.